On 20 – 21 April 2018, Gullah Society Director of Research and Interpretation, Joanna Gilmore, attended a two-day conference at the Manchester Center for Public History and Heritage (MCPHH), at Manchester Metropolitan University in the UK.
By Joanna Gilmore
Since its inception, in 2012, the Gullah Society has focused on preserving African-descendant burial grounds as a testimony to the previously ‘forgotten’ enslaved Africans and their free African descendants that built, lived and worked in Charleston and the Lowcountry. For Dr. Ade Ofunniyin, the gravestones are monuments to our ancestors and should be accessible for families and people researching their family histories.
In Fall 2017, Gullah Society began working with the City of Charleston, to reinter (rebury) the thirty-six African and African-descendant individuals that were uncovered during renovations to the Gaillard Center in 2013. As part of the reinterment process Gullah Society staff and City representatives agreed that the individuals should be reburied as close to their original location as possible, along with any artifacts associated with each burial. Additionally, the Gullah Society would work with colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania to apply for a National Geographic Society grant to support DNA research to learn more about the ancestry of the 36 individuals buried near Anson Street. Through community and school engagement programs, combined with the information gained from the DNA research, we will develop a ceremony and memorial at the reinterment site.
As a result of our ongoing research on the Anson Street burial ground project and in preparing the ‘WOKE: Rattling Bones, Conversations, Holy Rites and Sacred Places’ exhibition at the City Gallery, we have become increasingly aware of the potential that this site has to address the balance of memorials in Charleston. Our conversations aligned closely with the conference theme, at the newly launched MCPHH, which focused on “MOVING MONUMENTS: HISTORY, MEMORY AND THE POLITICS OF PUBLIC SCULPTURE” and provided an opportunity for us to disseminate our current work internationally.
According to the conference organizers, “ongoing events in the United States concerning the removal of Confederate soldier-statues, together with similar discussions here in the UK linked to various memorials and monuments from the age of Empire make clear that despite living in an era of increasingly ‘virtual memory’, public sculpture continues to draw – and provoke – engaged political debate.”
On the first day of the conference panels covered ‘Race, Slavery and the Politics of Memory’ and ‘Race, Politics and Power: Contesting Memory in the United States’ and ‘Marginalization, Reconciliation and Civic Identity’. Both Emily Gee, with Historic England, and Sophie Campbell, at the University of Nottingham, prompted important discussion about the absence of black abolitionists in the commemorative landscape, who controls monument building and the value of using monuments for teaching contested histories, providing a counterpoint, and the value of removing monuments altogether. Campbell also described how the narratives projected on monuments are malleable and open to appropriation. While there is potential to shift the narratives surrounding a monument, this also depends upon the subject of the monument itself. For example, a monument such as John C. Calhoun in Marion Square, is perhaps less malleable because of the degree to which he is venerated as a Statesman, despite his vehement support of slavery.
On the second day of the conference I gave my presentation, “Monumental Decisions: Community Engagement, Identity and Memory”, which focused on the Anson street burial ground project. I began by discussing the history of slavery and memory in Charleston, to provide context for our current work. Exploring the history of memory, memorialization and the interpretation of the African and African descendant experiences in the City over the past 300 years provides a broader context for understanding where we are today and how we got here. Later I described the memorial landscape in Charleston and our plan for incorporating DNA research and community engagement into the design of the memorial near the Gaillard Center.
So far we have held four community talks and have curated the WOKE exhibition at the City Gallery to facilitate our community conversations. Walter Hood, architect for the International African American Museum memorial, has suggested that instead of asking what sort of monument people want to see, there is more likelihood for consensus if communities are asked how they would like to feel when they see the monument. This is what we have focused on at our community conversations, feedback from the community will be used by monument designers to create conceptual design. In the Fall, College of Charleston students in Dr. Nathaniel Walker’s Architecture of Memory class, will use results of the ongoing research and feedback provided by the community to propose memorial designs. These will be presented at a public forum for further community engagement.
The reinterment of the 36 African individuals presents a rare occasion for Charleston citizens to engage with their African heritage at the community level, as well as an opportunity to answer important questions regarding ancestry and identity and to add new voices to the Charleston’s memorial landscape.
City Gallery's WOKE is an eye-opening exploration of the city's African-American burial grounds
Leonard Freed, a Brooklyn born photographer, is best known for his photos of Jewish communities throughout the world and for his depictions of the Civil Rights Movement. But two different kinds of photographs of Freed's stand out to Linda Dennis, program manager for A Backpack Journalist, an organization that provides journalism experiences for students across the Lowcountry.
"They tell the story of an African-American Gullah funeral on Johns Island," says Dennis of Freed's images, which she acquired from Freed's wife, Brigitte. "They tell the story of the Christmas Eve Gullah tradition that they do at a church and they sing and clap with or without music and they wait for the birth of Christ at midnight."
Freed's photos are part of WOKE: Rattling Bones, Conversations, Sacred Rites and Holy Places. The new exhibition at City Gallery looks to "serve as a learning laboratory to share information and documentation about newly recognized and at-risk cultural heritage sites."
Dr. Ade Ofunniyin, executive director of the Gullah Society and project director of the Gullah Society Sacred Burial Ground Project, curated WOKE with the help of Dennis and A Backpack Journalist.
The at-risk cultural heritage sites referenced in the exhibit's description include the Zion Olivett African Burial Ground on Monrovia Street and the New First Missionary Baptist Church Burial Grounds at Edisto Island. But the event that put black burial grounds in the forefront of Charleston — at least through media coverage — was the 2013 unearthing of 36 sets of bones from African Americans buried in the mid to late 1700s. Those bones were discovered near Anson Street during renovations to the Gaillard Center.
"The reinterment of the bones at the Gaillard Center is a critical representation of the displacement of African burial sites," Ofunniyin says. "It's also indicative of the displacement of people generally. That displacement results from development that doesn't take into consideration communities of people that have been in these places that have been gentrified for centuries."
In the wake of discovering the built-over graves, Ofunniyin began the Anson Street Burial Project — an initiative to engage community stakeholders and the city in coming up with ways that the remains can be humanized and interred once again.
Currently the remains of those bodies found buried near Anson Street are resting in a city facility while the discussions about the burial and a proper memorial at the Anson Street site are ongoing.
WOKE is meant to provoke people's thoughts about the individuals who were discovered in the ground near Anson Street: who were these people, how did they come to be buried there, and what are their stories? Methods of answering these questions are being worked out by the Anson Street Burial project's partners: DNA will determine what part of Africa those remains might have come from; Howard University will examine the genetic material to see if any diseases were present; Ofunniyin has even partnered with National Geographic to see if any living relatives of the dead can be found.
"The exhibit and the process is intended to wake up the community," Ofunniyin says, "to not only think about burial grounds but to think about a lot of things, including gentrification, how to empower [communities], how to deal with the effects of gentrification. ... People don't have places to live because they can't afford to live here anymore."
Those lessons still need to be taught in Ofunniyin's mind. The disrespect of black burial grounds continues. It's not just the dead that development is overlooking — it's the living as well.
"Awareness has not been created yet," Ofunniyin says. "Developers are single mindedly committed to developing and getting a check. Part of this process is not to stop development, because it's going to occur, but to create a type of development that's more sensitive to the needs of communities that are being developed and include the concerns of those people that are being displaced."
If WOKE could accomplish just one task, for Ofunniyin it'd be this — "Being woke would mean that you would be concerned with your fellow man."
Gullah Society work featured in Charleston Magazine...
Reflections on the "Recovering the Bones: African American Material Religion and Religious Memory" conference at the National Museum of African American History and Culture.
By Ade Ofunniyin
On October 27th and 28th my colleague, Joanna Gilmore, and I attended a two-day conference, titled Recovering the Bones: African American Material Religion and Religious Memory. The conference was sponsored by the Center for the Study of African American Religious Life (CSAARL) at the National Museum of African American History and Culture on the Mall, in Washington, DC. The Center “seeks to examine and catalog the rich diversity of the African American religious experience and the various expressions of faith, belief, and spirituality among African American people through collections, research, publications, and community engagement.” The conference was convened in the Oprah Winfrey Theater.
The conference presenters included distinguished scholars, such as, Charles H. Long, University of California at Santa Barbara, Yvonne Chireau, Swarthmore College, Whitney Battle-Baptiste, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Qiana, J Whitted, University of South Carolina, Ashton T Crawley, University of Virginia, Sylviane Diouf, Lapidis Center for the Historical Analysis of Transatlantic Slavery, New York Public Library, Dianne M Stewart, Emory University. Michael L Blakey, College of William and Mary, Nimi Wariboko, Boston University, Melvin L Butler, University of Miami, David Douglas Daniels lll, McCormick Theological Seminary, Joyce Marie Jackson, Louisiana State University, Erica Moiah James, University of Miami. The program concluded with a live performance by the Campbell Brothers. The Campbell Brothers presented “a compelling, rich variety of material from the African American Holiness Pentecostal repertoire on the steel and electric guitars.”
The conference was informative and exciting, powerful and empowering. It was wonderful to be seated in the Oprah Winfrey Theater with so many distinguished scholars of African descent from different regions of the African diaspora. An anticipated benefit for participating in the conference was being in the museum and taking time to view exhibits.
The National Museum of African American History and Culture dispels a popular myth that declared that African American people do not appreciate history and attending museums. The NMAAHC demonstrates clearly that what matters to black museum-goers is content, presentation, relevance and intention. The museum provides the needed space for people, particularly African descended people, to remember, reflect, and celebrate the richness of African culture and heritage. At last, the world can see on display, the magnanimity and triumph of African people and their descendants in the United States of America; the exhibits, and the historical context provided, tell the compelling story of the enslavement of African peoples and their long arduous journey to the present. The stories are told through the lens of an African/African American interpreter; they are our stories.
Since it’s opening, the museum has been visited by overflowing crowds. It was no different on the days that I was at the conference. The long lines to enter an exhibition area included elderly people in wheelchairs, children, and families. Most of the attendees that I observed were black; there were many shades of blackness and several whites in all of the exhibit spaces. In some spaces it was almost impossible to move about. I am certain that I will make several trips back to the NMAAHC for a more comprehensive viewing of what the museum has to offer.
Gullah Society awarded grant from the Coastal Community Foundation of South Carolina to preserve sacred burial grounds
Gullah Society was awarded a $2,500.00 grant to purchase the equipment necessary for the survey and documentation of burial grounds. This equipment includes; a drone (for aerial photography), shovels, line levels, measuring tape, sifting screens, brooms, buckets, a wheelbarrow, stakes, archival bags and conservation materials.
Over the past year we have continued to work with the New First Missionary Baptist Church on Edisto Island in documenting their burial ground. We have provided the Church with a report, an inventory of burials, and map that allows friends and relatives to locate the burials of loved ones. We have also forged partnerships with Union Baptist Church, New Life in Christ Baptist Church, Zion Olivet Presbyterian Church, the City of Charleston, Dixie King Street Investors LLC (owners of the property across the street from the Monrovia Street cemeteries listed above), and Boomtown (which is located on this property).
Through these partnerships we have created a plan to assist and train community volunteers in the clearing of vegetation around these sensitive sites, and in recording, documenting, repairing and conserving grave markers. We will also provide these Churches with an inventory of burials, with additional genealogical research, so that families are now able to find and access the burials of relatives.
To further our outreach in communities we used funds provided by the Coastal Community Foundation for promotional materials, such as the website, business cards, a PO Box and posters.
Staff archaeologists, Jeremy C. Miller and Taryn P. Ricciardelli, presented these posters at the 7th annual Archaeological Conference for the South Carolina Lowcountry, held at the College of Charleston, April 8th 2017. These posters detailed our work at the New First Methodist Baptist Church Cemetery and for the DeReef Park history harvest project. For this project, we worked with the City of Charleston, to help record community history through interviews and the collection of photographs and ephemera. The purchase of the digital voice recorder will be used to collect oral histories from communities and in recording stories about relatives buried at the cemeteries that we document.
The posters were also used at a public screening of ‘The New York African Burial Ground’ documentary, held at the Charleston County Library on Calhoun Street on May 22 and June 2, 2017. The Gullah Society hosted this educational screening of the 2009 documentary about the 18th century African burial ground discovered in New York City in 199. The purpose of this event was to provide an opportunity for conversation about the future commemoration of the African graves discovered at Charleston Gaillard Center in 2013, including a possible location for the reinterment of the thirty seven individuals once buried at the site. We are now working with the City of Charleston to ensure that an appropriate memorial and ceremony is planned for the reinterment.
Discovering the dead: Gullah Society takes on preservation of black burial grounds in Charleston
Plunge a shovel in the Charleston earth and you are likely to dig up history. It’s there in layers, accumulated over the centuries.
Among the artifacts one might encounter are the broken pieces of old buildings, cannon balls and other ordnances — and the bones of our predecessors. Charleston’s lost cemeteries and burial grounds are numerous, though many of them have been destroyed or forgotten. And some of this sacred ground remains undiscovered by the living.
When, in early 2013, workers were preparing the foundation of the new Gaillard Center, they uncovered the remains of 36 Africans as well as bone fragments of a few others. The construction work stopped temporarily as archaeologists, project leaders, city officials and others scrutinized the site. The remains were carefully boxed and removed for study then placed in a secure room. There they have remained for four and a half years.
The city now is working out a plan to reinter these remains just 100 feet or so from where they were found. It’s a complicated project involving lawyers, archaeologists, community leaders and historic preservationists.
The Gaillard site is the latest of many old black burial grounds that have been discovered in Charleston. Many of the cemeteries that survive are ill-maintained and in danger of being lost. Many more have been destroyed or covered over during a century or more of urban expansion and real estate development.
In the 1700s and 1800s, the Charleston peninsula included large stretches of undeveloped land populated by many small farmers. The dead not laid to rest in churchyards often were buried in small, private cemeteries. The poor were unceremoniously placed in municipal graveyards on the west side of the peninsula. Recordkeeping has not always been rigorous. Much has been lost, sometimes due to neglect, sometimes because of deliberate efforts to override this heritage with profitable development projects.
“Up until World War II, it was not uncommon for churches and city officials to say, ‘This burial ground is full so we’re going to build on top of it,’ ” said Nic Butler, a historian at the Charleston County Public Library. “The idea that burial grounds will remain forever free of development was limited to the elite. Churches put up walls around burial grounds. But other churches with more modest pocketbooks, in the past have sold burial grounds, abandoned burial grounds and moved somewhere else.”
City officials often were complicit in the destruction of such sites, preferring development over preservation, he said.
“Things that were done within living memory are thought to be bad, and yet they’re still done,” Butler said. “The discovery of the burial ground (during) the Gaillard construction several years ago was not an isolated event and not an example of some egregious cover-up. We have reached a point in our society where we will no longer tolerate such things. The idea that ... some people are more important than others is not accepted today.”
'In such bad shape' Ade Ofunniyin respectfully disputes that assertion. Ofunniyin has collaborated with Butler to raise awareness of the threat to black burial grounds posed by development and gentrification. He worries that a long history of disregard for black archaeological sites could continue unless the community takes matters into its own hands and recruits allies among city planners and those concerned with historic preservation. Too many black burial grounds have been lost already, he said. Too many more are in awful states of disrepair.
Ofunniyin has been consulting with civic leaders on cemetery renovations, and on the Gaillard reinterment project, since 2012. Ofunniyin, grandson of master blacksmith Philip Simmons and an adjunct professor at the College of Charleston, recently started the Gullah Society in an effort to help formalize the protection and preservation of black burial grounds in the city.
He became devoted to this effort a few years ago when searching for graves on Daniel Island, where several of his ancestors were laid to rest. He found what he was looking for near a tennis court. “The cemetery was in such bad shape,” Ofunniyin said. “I was getting ready to leave when I heard the voice of William Simmons saying, 'You can’t leave; look what’s in front of you.'”
In front of him were sunken graves, broken stones, fallen trees, overgrown flora.
“We talk a lot about our ancestors and respecting our heritage, but it’s all so abstract,” Ofunniyin mused. To properly respect our ancestors means dirt under the fingernails, money earmarked for preservation projects, history taught to students, coordination with municipal leaders and nonprofits, he said. Respecting heritage requires action.
So Ofunniyin set up the Gullah Society and secured two $5,000 grants from the Daniel Island Company to restore the Grove Cemetery and work on plans to save three others.
The organization operates on a shoestring budget. Ofunniyin is at the helm; Joanna Gilmore, who teaches in the College of Charleston's anthropology department, conducts some research. Ofunniyin said he hopes the Gullah Society can become the keeper of African and African-American burial grounds, especially as the last of the old burial societies fades away.
How the dead are lost
Michael Trinkley, director of the Chicora Foundation in Columbia and an archaeologist and preservationist, has done research on Charleston burial grounds, publishing in 2010 “The Silence of the Dead: Giving Charleston Cemeteries a Voice.”
He scoured historical documents, maps and newspapers to identify about 100 cemetery locations and, in some cases, individual graves, and compare them with the current topography of the city, he said.
Some of these sites were destroyed, some disappeared under parking lots and office buildings, and others remained accessible, though often only a smattering of bone fragments were found.
“A lot of these losses were in fact a result of the city of Charleston’s governance,” Trinkley said. “While cemeteries were not taxed (generally), all properties were taxed for road and sidewalk improvements. So if you didn’t pay taxes, your property would be taken by the city and sold.” And since it could be difficult for black burial societies to afford such taxes, and even unclear just who was responsible for some of the black cemeteries, those taxes often were not paid, he said.
This went on into the middle of the 20th century, and it wasn’t exclusive to Charleston, Trinkley said. “We have a (1939) newspaper account of a church and cemetery to be sold in Orangeburg County for past-due taxes.”
Some white cemeteries also suffered damage and destruction, Trinkley said. But black burial grounds have been most at risk. “Black cemeteries are much more likely to be moved and studied than white cemeteries, … often because of where black cemeteries happen to be located,” he said.
Now there are few left. But because so many sites never were well documented or marked, it’s inevitable that more burial grounds will be discovered as the city continues to change and grow, Trinkley said. And that obligates the community to take special care, to have archaeologists at the ready and preservationists standing by.
Archaeologists were standing by when, in the spring, a construction team found two graves and some disassociated human remains at Harmon Field while working on a stormwater project. City officials anticipated finding bones at the site because of past excavations nearby, according to Susan Herdina, the city’s attorney involved in this and other burial ground concerns, including the Gaillard project.
“Where we have some history and a good sense there could be remains, we are prepared for that,” she said.
The Harmon Field remains were removed following a process defined by state law that involves the coroner and a funeral director, Herdina said. Intact bones and fragments were secured and now await reburial at the site or nearby.
The Gaillard discovery prompted involvement of a history commission whose members are now considering how best to memorialize the dead. Archaeologist Eric Poplin and city officials are working together to determine whether the corner of Anson and George streets can accommodate 37 small boxes without disturbing other remains (none have been found so far) or relocating infrastructure, Herdina said. If all goes well, the remains could be back in the ground before the end of the year, she said.
“This is a piece of our history that’s really interesting to historians, archaeologists” and others, Herdina said. “Taking a deliberative approach that touches all bases is definitely the right way to go.”
Poplin, senior archaeologist and vice president of Brockington Cultural Resources Consulting, was digging at the Gaillard site recently to determine whether anything would prevent reburial there. He used remote sensing radar to see beneath the dirt, discovering “a lot of disturbance” in the form of buried building materials, but so far nothing more.
The goal is to excavate a 10-by-5-foot space, 5 feet deep, in which to place the 37 containers of remains, he said. After they were discovered, the bones were examined forensically, subjected to strontium and oxygen isotype testing. The former helps determine where someone was born; the latter provides data related to where someone lived and died.
Strontium is absorbed in bones and teeth, Poplin explained. Archaeologists can match remains with specific regions of the world, thereby identifying a person’s origins.
This testing made it clear that the adults discovered at the Gaillard site were from a variety of places up and down the western side of Africa. The six children found had been born in South Carolina.
The team opted not to do DNA testing since it is generally more destructive, requiring larger bone samples, and since it requires a counter sample to which the results can be compared. Though he didn’t rule out such testing if a consensus emerges in favor of it, Poplin said.
The burial ground at the Gaillard dates to about 1780, give or take a decade, just before development of Anson Street took off, he said. There was no crowding; everyone was oriented in the same direction, equally spaced. That likely means their undertakers were under no pressure to bury them quickly, Poplin said.
Ofunniyin is pleased with how the project is being managed and hopeful that it will encourage city officials and members of the community to become more involved in the preservation of these burial grounds.
Not long ago, he visited a black cemetery off Cunnington Avenue where he saw among the ill-maintained graves a few large monuments to the dead, signifying that someone important lay beneath the earth there.
“But who were they?” Ofunniyin asked. Clearly they played an important role in their communities. Certainly they accomplished something significant in their lives and were held in esteem by family and friends. “These are the stories that are missing, these are the stories our children need to know.”
So saving burial grounds is much more than an academic exercise in historic preservation, he said. It’s a chance to keep history alive, to pass it down to new generations, to right wrongs.
“This is a good opportunity for the city to do some redemptive work, to make up for their complicity over the centuries,” he said.
Contact Adam Parker at email@example.com.
Gullah Society work featured on the Center for Family History at the International African American Museum (IAAM) website
Cemetery Preservation: A Growing Concern
All cemeteries lose things over time as natural elements take their toll – headstones may deteriorate due to growth of algae, lichen or fungus, headstone inscriptions may wear down and become less readable, growth of trees and underbrush may cause gravestones to be uprooted, broken or displaced.
Entire cemeteries may become endangered due to neglect and lack of maintenance. African American cemeteries are particularly susceptible to endangerment from neglect because many of these sacred places have historically been undervalued, unrecognized and unpreserved.
One nonprofit organization based in Charleston, South Carolina seeks to protect and preserve the sacred burial grounds of African and African American ancestors.
The Gullah Society
Since 2013, the Gullah Society, a nonprofit organization based in Charleston, South Carolina, has worked to document burial grounds at a number of locations in Charleston and the surrounding Lowcountry. At each site, Gullah Society’s efforts focus on assessing, mapping, documenting and stabilizing burials and their environment.
The society also works with communities and Church groups to assist in their preservation, management and maintenance of burial grounds, and in the collection of oral histories and documents related to those buried there.
The Gullah Society seeks to:
A Word From Dr. Ade Ofunniyin, Founder of the Gullah Society
How we remember our ancestors says a lot about our humanity. When we consider that an ancestor is someone from whom you descended, your forerunner, a human being that preceded you, we realize that ancestors are personal and familial. That person might have been a parent or grandparent; they could have been an aunt or uncle. The link includes recent ancestors and those who extend deep into the past; it spans countless generations, multiple continents, and intersects ethnicities. There are ancient ancestors, and in the case of so many of us, those that we call collective ancestors.
Annually on the second Saturday in the month of June groups of people in different global locales come together to honor those ancestors that perished in the Middle Passage. We don’t know their identities or which specific ancestral group they came from; we honor them as collective ancestors.
In my hometown of Charleston, South Carolina we Gullah Geechee people come together at Sullivan Island and Fort Moultrie to make offerings of libation, fruits, flowers, praise, and dance to the spirits of our collective forebears. We have celebrated this occasion for nearly twenty-five years. The crowd changes and have over the years grown to include more young people.
The affair lasts approximately three hours. It has always been emotional and jubilant; like most experiences when African people come together with drums, voice and worship. When the event ends, we depart in our separate cars having accomplished not more than a good feeling; for some it is a healing. Most of us leave feeling that we have given the ancestors their due; that we have in fact paid homage to those who suffered and endured the horrendous Middle Passage.
For several years now, I have joined my Charleston community in this ritual. On occasions, I have been invited to pour the libations and lead the activities. I always felt joy and satisfaction in what we were doing for our collective ancestors; like so many others, I continue to look forward to this annual event. But through my work with Gullah Society’s Sacred Burial Grounds project, I have come to know that there is so much more that must be done for our ancestors.
Since 2013, I have visited several dozen burial grounds where the remains of our ancestors have been laid to rest (some might have been on the ship that transported those collective ancestors; some may be descendants). Many of the graves have markers and headstones that identify the interred; a good number of them have no markers; many of the graves have collapsed, and some are at sites that are not accessible to families or the community, due to overgrown shrubbery, bushes, fallen trees, debris, and trash. Many ancestral sacred burial grounds have become wastelands for rubbish and junk.
Internet access and increased publicity has spawned a great interest in genealogy and family histories. Family members are finding relatives and are forging remarkable relationships. Sometimes these discoveries lead to a burial ground. I recently learned of a young woman who followed the trail to a cemetery where her ancestors were buried. After a long search and discovery, she was unable to visit the grave because of overgrowth and fallen trees. She hired someone to help her work her way into the site, but was still unable to find her loved ones; this is not uncommon.
In some instances, burial grounds cannot be found because they no longer exist. Large numbers of burial grounds and cemeteries have been displaced by development or in some case the creation of our massive interstate highway system. Some are buried deep beneath private homes, public buildings, and parking lots. Many of the older burial grounds are located on plantations or on developments that once served as a plantation. Gullah Society has also found graveyards that were once associated with churches that no longer exist or that was sold to a new group of parishioners, who have no knowledge of the burial site; they likely have ho records of who is buried at the site.
Locating, reclaiming, and mapping sacred burial grounds is one of the many tasks that Gullah Society engages in to reconnect families and bring awareness to the public about the richness of Gullah Geechee heritage and traditions. We invite you to join us in this work. If you are aware of a burial site that looks abandoned, please contact us. You can also organize volunteers and family members to cleanup and maintain the burial grounds.
More recently, municipalities, sensitive homeowners and developers are responding positively to requests from family members for access to sacred burial grounds. Get involved adopt a burial ground! Make paying homage to our ancestors an activity that we participate in daily. Let us actively remember those who sacrificed so much for so long, on our behalf, to improve the qualities of our lives. Let us do for our ancestors what we hope others will do for us, when it is our turn to be someone’s beloved ancestor.
For more information about the International African American Museum and the Center for Family History click the link below:
NEWS 2' Ashley Osborne interviews Gullah Society archaeologist, Jeremy Miller about the Monrovia Street burial grounds.
Centuries worth of hidden secrets buried under Lowcountry buildings, parking lots and roads. You probably walk or drive by forgotten graveyards often, but you would never know because either something is built on top or the landscape has taken over the site.
All week News 2’s Ashley Osborne unearths some of Charleston’s forgotten cemeteries. She talked to researcher Grant Mishoe and archaeologist Jeremy Miller about how they uncover where the graves are located and who is buried there.
Grant Mishoe is a retired firefighter who has developed a passion for discovering who is buried in Charleston’s forgotten graves. He finds the information by digging through thousands upon thousands of death records, some dating back to before the Revolutionary War.
“This is just what I enjoy doing,” Mishoe says. “I go through these cemeteries and look, try to track down family members. If I see people that are happy and they’ve seen their family, because my family is near and dear to my heart, my genealogy–that makes me happy.”
Mishoe explains how these burial grounds get lost in time.
“Back in the early days there used to be these friendly societies or burial societies and people would pay into it to get buried, but the problem is, as the trustees get older and pass away, the kids have moved on, out of state, out of town, or don’t care or for whatever reason. Then what happens is this.” He points to the overgrown piece of land where people once buried their loved ones.
Jeremy Miller is an archaeologist with the Gullah Society. They have been working on African burial grounds for the last couple years and recently became a non-profit organization. He and others are in the process of mapping out where people are buried inside these African burial sites.
“Anytime archaeologists or architects even, go into a place, they want plans, a planned drawing or map of the location,” Miller explains. “What we’re trying to provide to clients and to the community is a map, some kind of tangible product or service that they can have where they can see the locations of individuals or their loved ones and be able to find them.”
Miller explains why the Gullah Society is working to restore these places of history.
“Part of visiting these African burial grounds is the experience…We’d like the descendants or the loved ones to be able to visit their loved ones. I think a lot of people take it for granted if any of the individuals even watching this have ancestors that are buried in Magnolia Cemetery, anybody can go and visit their ancestors freely. Here this isn’t as welcoming of an invitation.” He says as he points to an area where tomb stones are tucked back in the woods. “Something needs to be done. I think it’s part of the greater healing process for Charleston” says Miller.
Miller says that the archaeological and scientific community have been pushing for an archaeological ordinance in the City of Charleston for years. They would like an ordinance to require official research done to uncover any traces of history before something is built on top.
“This speaks to some of the greater issues in Charleston right now,” says Miller, “particularly with the development, and so as many of us know, there is a push for an archaeological ordinance here…and with all this development, we’re going to have to push for some kind of regulation because sites like these are getting lost and history is getting lost with it.”
The first burial site they brought us to is across the street from the new fire department on Heriot Street, which is a side road off upper King Street.
There is an undeveloped area about one-quarter acre in size with roughly 20 visible headstones in it. Mishoe says between 900-1300 people are buried there and sprawling out underneath the buildings in the area. Mishoe’s research shows that no one owns the quarter acre. There are no records for it so in theory, it is just a blank space on the map.
Next, they took us one street up to Monrovia Street. Miller explained that there are 4 burial sites in this area across the street from the new Pacific Box and Crate. The head stones start next to an old meeting building and they run through the woods up to I-26. There are headstones resting on the walls of the interstate. Miller says, there is a high probability that there are also graves underneath the I-26.
Third, we went to one of downtown Charleston’s busiest streets. At the corner of Calhoun and Pitt Street, you can see the sanctuary for Bethel United Methodist Church. Underneath the church, multiple houses, parking lots and roads are 5 forgotten cemeteries in this area. Researcher Grant Mishoe thinks there are roughly 2,000 people buried in this collection. The burial site that is underneath is sanctuary is unique for the time period in which the cemetery was in use. Bethel Church buried whites and blacks together. They were buried on separate sides; however, in the same cemetery. This was not common for the time period.
Fourth we take you to Charleston’s Old Jail on Magazine Street in downtown Charleston. This is where the city once imprisoned sea pirates, members of a slave rebellion and Civil War prisoners. The jail is packed with history, but there is even older history buried underneath. This area was the site for the city’s first and second public burial grounds. Burials were very expensive so the city would bury those who could not afford one in their public cemetery. In these places, the city buried paupers, indigents, criminals etc.The first public graveyard follows a crescent shape because officials used to bury people along the outside of the city walls. The second public graveyard takes up a large square block where there are now houses, parking lots, roads and the Old Jail.
Last, we went to a site tucked back in the woods in North Charleston. This little section of woods is off Dorchester Road near the Air Force base. You cannot see it from the road, but there is a graveyard that belonged to a wealthy plantation owner and his family. This family was loyal to the British during the Revolutionary War and had some of their land taken away temporarily because of their controversial allegiance.
Homage to Sarah Buncum Simmons: Mother’s Day 2017
By Ade Ofunniyin, PhD
It has been nearly five years since I began my work with Gullah Society and African Burial Grounds. My interest was spurred by a visit to the gravesite of my ancestor William Simmons Senior. The late Mr. Simmons is the grandfather of my grandfather Philip Simmons. William Simmons Sr., his son William Simmons Jr., and his daughter Rosa Burns are all buried on Daniel Island at the Grove Cemetery. Rosa is my grandfather’s mother. William Simmons Senior’s wife, Sarah Buncum Simmons, is also buried on Daniel Island, at Alston Cemetery. I don’t know why William and Sarah were buried at different sites. I do know that William deceased before Sarah. I believe that Sarah’s family and church were left with the responsibility of attending to her burial rites and they buried her at the family and church’s cemetery.
I knew nothing about where my ancestors were buried and had no knowledge about the burial grounds until I read Herb Frazier’s book, ‘Behind God’s Back’. After a book signing at my studio, Herb informed me that my grandfather told him that his grandfather was buried behind the tennis stadium on Daniel Island. Granddad and I had many conversations about his time as a boy on the Island with his grandparents, but he never mentioned to me where they were buried. I even visited the island with granddad and family members to attend a ceremony for the dedication of the Philip Simmons Park. The park is not far from the burial ground; but the resting place of our ancestors was never mentioned while we were gathered as a family only blocks away.
I was exceedingly happy to learn the whereabouts of my ancestral burial ground and the very next morning I awoke early to go and find them. It was a rainy Sunday morning; with umbrella in hand, I walked the trail adjacent the stadium until I saw what appeared to be a cemetery. I couldn’t see it clearly because of the overgrown bushes and fallen trees; but I was able to see a few headstones. There was no gate for me to enter. The grounds were protected by a wooden fence. I climbed over the fence and proceeded to walk the site looking for William Simmons Senior’s tombstone. After passing several sunken graves, pushing my way through overgrown shrubbery, and fallen trees, I found the stone; it read FATHER William Simmons Senior. On the right-hand side of his stone was another headstone that read William Simmons Jr., and on the left-hand side another headstone read Rosa Burns.
While it is true that I did not discover the sacred burial sites of my ancestors until I had grandchildren of my own, I cried like a child when I was able to look upon the tombstones of my progenitors. My search for my ancestral connections was encouraged by my grandfather’s stories about home and family; for him home was Dan’s Island and family were his grandparents, William and Sarah. My grandfather lived until he was ninety-seven years old; his stories were long-lasting and often repeated. He was my link to my family’s past. I was very fortunate!
Nowadays, countless people are doing genealogical research, hiring investigators, spending money, long hours, days, weeks, months, and years, trying to connect to their family’s history. The process is less tedious with the internet and social media, but some people are never able to make the connection. Why are so many people trying to reconnect to their ancestral past? Why has genealogy become so important? What can our past teach us, about ourselves, and the world that we live in? Are the living linked to the spirits of the dead?
Burial grounds, cemeteries, graves, and memorials are intended to be mnemonic; they are created to assist our memory. African descended people throughout the diaspora are struggling to reconstruct a past (memory) that was disrupted and re-devised by the wills of the colonial empire builders. African people and their descendants were captured like animals, kidnapped, and transported to unfamiliar territories. They were forced to deny their true identities; unable to speak their native languages, worship their natural God(s), practice longstanding traditions, and were required to submit to the will of their imperial enslavers. Unarmed, they resisted and fought back; for generations they fought back; and after centuries of resistance, their descendants continue to fight back. Our ancestors were brutalized with every attempt to remember themselves. Those that refused to relinquish their humanity, dignity, and power were tortured, maimed, or killed; many were sold or traded to other enslavers. Families were torn apart, memories were lost.
But all was not lost. Some memories were hidden in stories, others in traditions; important ideas, plans, gestures, and cultural nuances were stored in signs and symbols. Tinges were brewed into stews, weaved into basket patterns, and sewn into quilts.
Ancestral burial grounds are repositories for treasured memories, gems that await discovery. They stand alone as places where peace and unrest, truth and deception are at constant odds. Ancestors whose souls have been assigned to rest eternally in these places, are distressed by their abandonment. They are insulted at the constant turbulence at their sacred settlements. They too, bear witness to the fruits of “development” and “progress.”
It was after I found William Simmons’ final resting place that I noticed the unrest and absence of peace at African burial grounds. Finding Grove Cemetery in the state that I found it saddened and angered me. I knew that something had to be done immediately.
With the support of Daniel Island Historic Society members, Daniel Island Corporation, and College of Charleston students, Gullah Society was able to conduct research, map the cemetery and began the cleanup of Grove Cemetery. Five years have past since that first experience with the Cemetery. Some family members of the people who are interred at Grove have come together and are now negotiating ways of enhancing and beautifying the sacred burial site.
Although she was not far from her beloved husband, I did not find Sarah Buncum Simmons, until two years after I was directed to William Senior. I was driving down I-26 with a colleague and my spirit spurred me to invite her to join me while I visited my ancestor’s gravesite. After we visited the grave, I offered her a quick tour of the development that was taking place in the area known as Daniel Island Park. We drove past what appeared to be a fenced in wooded area. At my request, she stopped the car. I looked deeper into the shrubbery and noticed a few tombstones. I told my colleague, that I believed that we were at a cemetery. I quickly got out of the car.
The graveyard is protected by a wooden fence identical to the fence at Grove Cemetery. Unlike Grove, Alston Cemetery has an awkwardly hung rusty gate. I opened the gate, saluted the spirits and asked for their permission to enter. Once inside, the third stone that I met read, Sarah Simmons, MOTHER, 1870-1943. I fell to my knees in prayer and salutation. I was deeply humbled by her approach to strengthening my understanding of patience and faith. Over the preceding weeks she had shown so many signs that she was ready to reveal her whereabouts to me. She hid herself from my startled glance until her appearance could be witnessed by more eyes than mine. I am thankful to my dear sister Toni Carrier (LowCountry Africana) for being that witness. Sarah smiled and embraced the two of us.
Today is Mother’s Day 2017. I will remove leaves and broken limbs from Sarah’s grave and place some fresh flowers at her headstone. Visiting Sarah has become a constant for me. Her spirit nurtured and comforted my grandfather Philip throughout his life and she has done the same for me. My grandfather and I are both the firstborn grandsons of first-born daughters. She now watches over my children and I pray that she will be a light for their children. Yes, the living are linked to loved ones, who are now resting. We are blessed to have it so.
Whenever I complained to my grandfather about the changing landscape of Charleston and the surrounding islands, he would admonish me to “stop complaining” and would tell me how he witnessed Charleston’s growth from a “horse and buggy” town, to the tourist attraction that it had become. He called that kind of development progress. He had no idea that progress would remove his neighbors, friends, and family from neighborhoods that he loved and frequented. Perhaps he did not notice that they were removing tombstones from the Brown Fellowship Cemetery to make way for the construction of the College of Charleston Addlestone Library. He had never heard the stories told by College of Charleston students about the strange occurrences in their dormitory rooms in McAlister Hall.
I am sure that my grandfather and his generation were aware that it was their enslaved ancestors that built the city of Charleston and provided the labor that made it a wealthy city. I always got the sense from them that they were tired and had grown weary of the fight. They believed that the promise of civil rights and integration would finally bring progress that would be inclusive. The African descended people in the City of Charleston are still waiting and fighting, fighting and waiting, and trusting that one day real progress will come. Yes, there is unrest at burial sites in the city of Charleston and across this country, because the living and the deceased are still fighting for justice, fair treatment, and a place to live and rest.
I watched my grandfather as he aged, He never expressed anger at the approach of the grim-reaper; he sometimes would joke that his friends and loved ones were expecting him; as if to suggest that he was going to a wonderful party. That is what African people and their descendants believe about the afterlife; that it exists in a familiar place, a place that they are returning to; a place where memories are good and joy is everlasting; a place where they are in communion with the almighty and our eternal ancestors.
Sacred burial grounds and cemeteries are places where the living go to remember, reflect and be with the memories of their loved ones. Charleston, South Carolina, once had twenty-seven African graveyards and cemeteries; now there are seven. There may be more if we include those graveyards that are attached to local churches. Those that are not attached to churches are endangered. They lie in the path of development and progress. The stories that they can tell are deemed unnecessary. The newly arrived residents have no use for stories about the suffering, pain, and torture that was inflicted upon those whose graves they disregard and destroy. The new tenants are interested in places to live, work and socialize. Spiritual respite never seems to be given much thought. Tombstones and bones are transportable. “The dead don’t care where you put them”!
The City of Charleston is now responding to that mistaken notion. It is slowly realizing that the dead do care and that the living care as well. Mayor John Tecklenburg’s office has invited Gullah Society to provide an action plan, with recommendations and directions as to how to best proceed with the reinterment of the bones that were removed from the Gaillard Auditorium construction site during the building of the Gaillard Center. The bones were discovered in February 2013 near George and Anson Street.
Gullah Society’s recommendations include, returning the bones to the Gaillard Center property; that the City of Charleston follow the appropriate archaeological treatment during the reinterment process; that the City provide the required funding for the development of a memorial that will acknowledge the magnitude of this discovery; and that the City of Charleston will use this opportunity to acknowledge and memorialize the many graves in Charleston, that have been displaced and/or destroyed due to development.
Gullah Society also recommended that a public screening of The New York African Burial Ground documentary be held at the Charleston County Library on Calhoun Street. The film screening is scheduled for Monday May 22 at 6:30pm and Thursday June 2 at 6:30pm.
This educational screening of the 2009 documentary about the 18th century African burial ground discovered in New York City in 1991 will be followed by a discussion about the future commemoration of the African graves discovered at Charleston Gaillard Center in 2013, including a possible location for the reinterment of the thirty seven individuals once buried at the site.
Community & History News
You will find articles and videos about the connection and history of the Gullah Geechee culture as well as what's happening now. Enjoy!